First generation :-The first generation computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory they are taking space of entire room

  • They are very expensive to operate.
  • By using it generated a lot of heat , electricity which we often the cause of malfunctions.
  • Out put was displayed on printouts
  • UNIAC and ENIAC computers are the example of first generation computing devices.
  •  The UNIAC was the first computer used by the U.S census bureau in the year 1951.

* UNIAC = Universal automatic computers
* ENIAC  = Electronic numerical integrator & computer

Second generation :-In this generation transistors are used instead of vacuum tubes

  • this generation uses moved for Machine level language and assembly language.
  • in this generation also the instruction are stored in magnetic drums.

Third generation :The main thing in this generation is the development of integrated circuits.

  • By this computers become accessible to a mass audience because they were smaller & cheaper.
  • Chips are used entire processing unit i.e. in C.P.U.
  • By this it takes less space , faster and requires less heat energy.

Fourth generation :-The microprocessors brought the fourth generation of computers as thousands of I.C was built onto a single silicon chip.

  • The Intel 4004 chip, developed in 1971, locates all the components of the computers from the C.P.U & memory to I/O controls on a single chip.
  • In 1981 IBM introduced its first computer for the home user and in 1984 APPLE introduced the Macintosh.
  • It also development of GUIs, the mouse & handheld devices .

NOTE :- GUI = Graphical User Interface.

Fifth generation :-These generations based on artificial intelligence are still in developments , though they are some applications , such as Voice recognition , that are being used today

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