Introduction to Management

Management:According to Henry Fayol (1916) the management is to forecast, plan to organize, to control, to coordinate, to command.                                                                                (OR)According to Peter F Ducker (1955) management is concerned with the systematic organization of economic resources and it's take to make the resource and its task is to make this resources productive.                                                                                (OR)According to E. F. L. Brech (1957) management is a social process that consists of planning and control, coordination, and motivation is called motivation....
Read More

Parameters of Op-amp

Input off set voltage :  It is a voltage that must be applied between the two input terminals of an op-amp to null the output. Input off-set current : The algebraic difference difference between the currents in the inverting and non- inverting currents. Typical value of input offset current is 200 nAmp. Iiv = │I­B1 – IB2│ Input bias current : It is the average of the currents that flow into inverting and non-inverting currents of op-amp.IC is typically 500 nAmp maximum for IC741.Differential Input Resistance : It is denoted by R i    It is an equivalent resistance that can be measured inverting or non-inverting with the other terminal grounded. Input Capacitance (Ci) : It is the equivalent capacitance that can be measure in that act as inverting and non-inverting terminal with the other terminal being grounded. It is typically 1.4 Farads. Common Mode Voltage: It is the operating voltage in common mode operation, when some voltage is being applied to both the input terminals. Common Mode Rejection Ratio: It is a ratio of differential voltage gain...
Read More

Model of Digital Communication system – Channel Encoder and decoder

Channel encoder and decoder : Channel Encoder :After converting message or information signal in the form of binary sequence by the source encoder, the signal is transmitted to the channel. The channel acts as noise and interference to signal being transmitted. Therefore, errors are introduced in the binary sequence received at the receiver. To avoid these errors channel encoding is done. The channel encoder acts as some redundant binary bits to the input sequence.      Example: The code word from the source encoder is 3- bits long and one redundant bit is added in channel encoder. If it an even parity then the number of 1's in the encoded word remain even. At the receiver if odd number of 1's are detected then reciver comes to know that there is an error in the receiver signal.Channel Decoder :The channel decoder is able to detect errors in the bit sequence and reduce the effects of channel noise interference. The extra bits/...
Read More

Elements of Digital Communication:

Model Digital Communication System :      The purpose of this system is to transmit the message or square of symbols coming out of the source to a destination point.      The source and destination points are separated through a communication channel Model of Digital communication system * Discrete information source : The information source generates the message signal to be transmitted an analof information source may be transformed into a discrete information source through the process of sampling and quantization. The discrete information sources are charectarized by the following Parameters:  Source : These are the letter, digits or special charectar available in the information source. Source Alphabet Probability : Each source alphabet  from information source has independent occurrence rate in the sequence.Example: Letter or words (a, e, i, o, u) occurs frequently in the source. Symbol Rate: It is the rate at which the information source generates source alphabet and represented in symbol/ sec unit. Information Rate: This parameter defines the average information content of the symbols. Entropy...
Read More

Operational Amplifiers

About It is a high gain direct coupled amplifier with very high input impedance and very low impedance Circuit Symbol Of Operational Amplifer: The circuit schematic of an operational amplifier is a triangle with two input terminals called as non-inverting (+), inverting (-) terminals. There are 3 popular packages available. They are :  Metal in line package Dual in line package  Flat package The typical operational amplifier (op-amp) has 8-terminals, 10-terminals, 14-terminals in DIP/ Flat package. The following figures show the different IC packages with 8 and 14  respectively: 8- pin mini DIP 14 pin Dual in-line Package ...
Read More
PUBG  : Players Unknown Battle Grounds

PUBG : Players Unknown Battle Grounds

PUBG or PlayerUnknown's Battlegrounds has reached peak popularity. Gamers, across the world, play the favorite Battle Royale over various platforms. However, in their excitement to defeat their opponents, most gamers do not notice exciting facts about the game, or its development history. While this knowledge won't help you win the chicken dinner, it is only right to know about the game you love. HOW DID THE NAME PUBG CAME UP For those unaware, Brendan Greene is the creator of PUBG. He also developed Arma 2 and H1Z1 Battle Royales, before this. A man who likes his anonymity, Brendan is popularly known as PlayerUnknown, in the gaming community. Rumor has it, Brendan was inspired by the default player name, 'player 1', and changed it to PlayerUnknown. Since he designed the game, it became PlayerUnknown's Battlegrounds. TENCENT GAMES Tencent Games is the video game holding and publishing division of Tencent Interactive Entertainment, itself a division of Chinese conglomerate Tencent. Tencent Games was founded in 2003 to focus on online games. As...
Read More
INTRODUCTION TO CRYPRTOCURRENCY

INTRODUCTION TO CRYPRTOCURRENCY

WHAT IS A CRYPTOCURRENCY? A digital or crypto-currency is an online financial “coin” that cannot be touched or felt or carried from one placed to another physically, but it can be used online and transferred from one person to another through a digital wallet online. WHO REGULATES CRYPTOCURRENCIES? Crypto-Currencies are not regulated by the government or financial institutions. The main platform that keeps the cryptocurrency working is called “Blockchain” and this is the backbone that keeps all financial transactions and wallet information of all users of cryptocurrencies. WHO CAN USE A CRYPTOCURRENCY? The usage and acceptance of a cryptocurrency does not necessarily depend on location, but on the global market value it possesses. Therefore, anyone in the world can have it and use it to transact business, as long as they can afford it. DRAWBACKS OF CRYPTOCURRENCY One major disadvantage of cryptocurrency is that transactions cannot be reversed; once it is done, it is gone. The moment a cryptocurrency leaves your wallet, you can’t call...
Read More
WHY Crypto currency?

WHY Crypto currency?

Banks close at 4 PM. Wall Street closes at 3:30 PM. Crypto currency does not close. Ever. So, "What is crypto currency?" • Crypto currency is many things to many people. • Crypto currency is 24x7x365 • Crypto currency is global • Crypto currency is technology • Crypto currency is open-source software • Crypto currency is an internet protocol• Crypto currency is decentralized database • Crypto currency is a distributed public ledger • Crypto currency is peer-to-peer value communication • Crypto currency is a payment layer for the Internet• Crypto currency is a value transfer system • Crypto currency is a speculation platform • Crypto currency is a geopolitical hedge • Crypto currency is a fiat currency hedge • Crypto currency is electronic cash • Crypto currency is digital currency • Crypto currency is an asset • Crypto currency is a commodity• Crypto currency is property • Crypto currency is a virtual good • Crypto currency is gold 2.0 • Crypto...
Read More
THE FIVE GENERATIONS OF COMPUTERS

THE FIVE GENERATIONS OF COMPUTERS

First generation :-The first generation computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory they are taking space of entire room They are very expensive to operate. By using it generated a lot of heat , electricity which we often the cause of malfunctions. Out put was displayed on printouts UNIAC and ENIAC computers are the example of first generation computing devices.  The UNIAC was the first computer used by the U.S census bureau in the year 1951. NOTE : * UNIAC = Universal automatic computers * ENIAC  = Electronic numerical integrator & computer Second generation :-In this generation transistors are used instead of vacuum tubes this generation uses moved for Machine level language and assembly language. in this generation also the instruction are stored in magnetic drums. Third generation :The main thing in this generation is the development of integrated circuits. By this computers become accessible to a mass audience because they were smaller & cheaper. Chips are used entire processing unit i.e. in...
Read More
BASIC KNOWLEDGE OF COMPUTER

BASIC KNOWLEDGE OF COMPUTER

Before learning about the evolution of computers there are some things to know... C---Common O---Operating M---Machine P---Particularly U---Used for T---Technological/Trade/Training/Tremendous E---Engineering/Education/Education/Effort to R---Research/Research/Reporting/Reduce power INTRODUCTION :- Father of computer is Mr.Charles Babbage. When we are talking about the History of computers. We should refer to....................................... The history of computer development is often referred to in reference to the different generations of computing devices. With each new generation, the circuitry has gotten smaller and more advance then the previous generation before * Memory increased * Cheaper * More powerful * More efficient    There are 5 generations of computer are there. There :- 1. 1940-1956     ------  Vacuum tubes 2. 1956-1963     ------   Transistors 3. 1963-1971     ------   Integrated circuits 4. 1971-present ------   Micro processors 5. present-beyond----   Artificial intelligence   Next one will show you the evolution of computers ........
Read More